What Does Proof-of-Stake PoS Mean in Crypto?

Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology that records all the transactions within the network. Delegated Proof of Stake is the proven efficacious consensus mechanism that assures blockchain protocol stays scalable and sustainable. PoW lowers ethereum speedier proofofstake the risk of forking as it stops malicious users from spending cryptocurrency twice. Since a single controlling authority doesn’t regulate blockchains, there must be an approach to reach a consensus on the legitimacy of crypto transactions.

What is Proof of Stake

Decentralization is at the heart of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency. There’s no central gatekeeper to manage a blockchain’s record of transactions and data. Instead, the network relies on an army of participants to validate incoming transactions and add them as new blocks on the chain.

Validating false transactions leads to penalties or a total loss of staked funds. To conduct a 51% attack, the attacker will have to own 51% of the total cryptocurrency in the network which is quite expensive. This deems doing the attack too tedious, expensive and not so profitable. There will occur problems when amassing such a share of total cryptocurrency as there might not be so much currency to buy, also that buying more and more coins/value will become more expensive. Also validating wrong transactions will cause the validator to lose its stake, thereby being reward-negative. Under Ethereum’s PoS, if a 51% attack occurred, the honest validators in the network could vote to disregard the altered blockchain and burn the offender staked ETH.

A defining feature of blockchains is their use of consensus mechanisms to agree on the validity of transactions. The coin age based system selects the next forger based on the ‘coin age’ of the stake the potential forger has put up. Coin age is calculated by multiplying the number of days the cryptocurrency coins have been held as stake by the number of coins that are being staked. Coins must have been held for a minimum of 30 days before they can compete for a block. Users who have staked older and larger sets of coins have a greater chance of being assigned to forge the next block.

Alternatives to Proof of Stake

Their underlying structure proposes to shift away from a single authority that handles transaction data and keeps the records straight. Alternatively, numerous blockchain participants are actively involved in confirming transactions and updating the ledger. Some people and organizations invest in powerful machines which consume substantial energy to perform mining more effectively. This makes it more difficult for the average person with a standard computer to mine and receive rewards. Generally, as the blockchain becomes more valuable, more people compete to solve these puzzles and get rewards. The more miners that compete for block rewards, the more secure the network becomes.

Proof-of-Work relies on miners to confirm transactions and add new blocks. As understandable from the name, nodes on a network stake an amount of cryptocurrency to become candidates to validate the new block and earn the fee from it. Then, an algorithm chooses from the pool of candidates the node which will validate the new block. This selection algorithm combines the quantity of stake with other factors (like coin-age based selection, randomization process) to make the selection fair to everyone on the network. Proof-of-stake reduces the amount of computational work needed to verify blocks and transactions. Proof-of-stake changes the way blocks are verified using the machines of coin owners, so there doesn’t need to be as much computational work done.

What is Proof of Stake

Depending on the blockchain, crypto owners can earn yields of 5% to even 14% on their holdings by staking. Solana, Terra and Cardano are among the biggest cryptocurrencies that use proof of stake. Ethereum, the second-largest crypto by market capitalization after Bitcoin, is in the midst of a transition from proof of work to proof of stake. Have you been seeing Algorand in the cryptocurrency landscape lately and wondered if you should invest? It can be tempting to get in on the action when you see a new name coming into the frame when it comes to crypto.

Susceptibility to attacks decreases the overall security of the blockchain. Each proof-of-stake protocol works differently in how it chooses validators. There’s usually an element of randomization involved, and the selection process can also depend on other factors such as how long validators have been staking their coins. Understanding proof of stake is important for those investing in cryptocurrency. Here’s a guide to how it works, its pros and cons, and examples of cryptocurrencies that use it.

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For example, many people believe that proof of work provides more security. In addition, there can sometimes be a minimum time period that you have to have your proof of stake coins locked up for before you can get chosen. Plus, those with large holdings are going to have more influence in transactions. Delegated Proof of Stake is an advancement of the fundamental concepts of Proof of Stake and a type of blockchain consensus that enables users to spend their coins to vote for various delegates.

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While the Proof of Work protocol includes mining works, the Proof of Stake protocol does not contain mining. The Proof of Stake protocol was presented as an alternative to the Proof of Work protocol in an article published by the developers named Sunny King and Scoot Nadal in 2012. The conditions to qualify as a validator vary from one project to another.

Proof of Stake (PoS) Vs. Proof of Work (PoW)

They secure the ledger and ensure the validity of transactions by making it more costly to do the wrong thing than to do the right thing. All the nodes contending to become validator for the next block raise a stake. This stake is combined with other factors like ‘coin-age’ or ‘randomized block selection’ to select the validator. Proof of work has a longer proven history of use as a blockchain consensus mechanism. Although anyone staking crypto could be chosen as a validator, the odds are very low if you’re staking a comparatively small amount.

  • So, it provides absolutely no extra edge to join a mining pool; thus promoting decentralization.
  • The Proof-of-Stake consensus mechanism is a sustainable alternative to Proof-of-Work.
  • If not, blockchains could experience malicious behavior, double-spending, and fake transactions.
  • The content on the website is purely informative and does not constitute investment advice or guidance in any way.
  • This is accumulated and given to the entity who forges the new block.
  • Being a validator is more accessible than being a miner as you need digital assets to stake instead of machinery and electricity.
  • A decentralized network like blockchain requires certain rules and methodologies so that multiple nodes can meet an agreement on the state of the network.

Ethereum smart contracts support a variety of distributed apps across the crypto ecosystem. Most other security features of PoS are not advertised, as this might create an opportunity to circumvent security measures. However, most PoS systems have extra security features in place that add to the inherent security behind blockchains and PoS mechanisms. Jake Frankenfield is an experienced writer on a wide range of business news topics and his work has been featured on Investopedia and The New York Times among others. He has done extensive work and research on Facebook and data collection, Apple and user experience, blockchain and fintech, and cryptocurrency and the future of money. Certain implementations of proof of stake could leave blockchains more vulnerable to different kinds of attacks than proof of work, such as low-cost bribe attacks.

What is Proof of Stake?

But if they improperly validate bad or fraudulent data, they may lose some or all of their stake as a penalty. Proof of stake is a consensus mechanism used to verify new cryptocurrency transactions. Since blockchains lack any centralized governing authorities, proof of stake is a method to guarantee that data saved on the network is valid. Both consensus mechanisms help blockchains synchronize data, validate information, and process transactions. Each method has proven to be successful at maintaining a blockchain, although each has pros and cons. Proof-of-stake is a cryptocurrency consensus mechanism for processing transactions and creating new blocks in a blockchain.

What is Proof of Stake

Crypto trading platform HitBTC offers the best liquid staking option on the market with 10+ coins to choose from and APY up to 40%. Available coins include CVX, STETH, EMC, MINA, SMART, HYDRA, AXS, and others. Here is the complete list of coins and tokens available for staking in the HitBTC app and exchange.


In the case of cryptocurrencies where forgers create new coins, this rate also becomes the maximum rate at which the currency supply is inflated over time. While cryptocurrency and all its major aspects are paperless, mining tokens is energy-intensive and requires sophisticated machinery to solve complex algorithms and confirm each transaction. In the Proof-of-Work model, which has been in use since 2009, transactions are added to a particular blockchain network.

What is Proof of Stake

The cryptocurrency market is a very volatile market and can be easily affected by many factors, especially financial and political developments. For this reason, investing in cryptocurrencies is not suitable for persons who do not have enough experience and information. Because transactions made by cryptocurrencies and/or financial instruments carry very high risks and the risk of completely losing the sanctions.

A consensus is a general agreement toward a set of guidelines, opinions, or principles. Similarly, a consensus mechanism is a protocol that’s a set of rules or policies blockchains adhere to when verifying and validating cryptocurrency transactions. Proof-of-stake is a consensus mechanism used on blockchains to verify and validate cryptocurrency transactions. Staking is a method of securing the network by incentivizing a large number of coin holders to fund the network with their staked coins.

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To understand proof of stake, it is important to have a basic idea of proof of work. As of this writing, the proof of work method is used by Bitcoin, Ethereum and most other major cryptocurrencies. The reason why proof of stake is popular is because it is said to be energy-efficient. It is also going to allow for quick and affordable transaction processing. What’s more, there is no special equipment necessary for participation. There are some disadvantages when it comes to proof of stake that you should be aware of to understand the whole picture and to be aware of what you are getting involved in.

Nodes and validators are picked by votes, and those with larger stakes get more votes. Consensus mechanism is the method the computers running a cryptocurrency’s ledgers use to track transactions, communicate with one another, and maintain network security. Proof of stake is a cryptocurrency consensus mechanism where the mining and security of the network are determined by the accounts with the biggest stakes in the network. The concept was introduced by Sunny King and Scott Nadal in a 2012 whitepaper for PPCoin.

Bitcoin mining consumes more than 27.28TWh annually, which uses approximately 1.5% of the world’s energy supply. This energy consumption is absolutely unsustainable for a global economy if it were to adopt crypto as the primary payment system. The Proof-of-Stake consensus mechanism is a sustainable alternative to Proof-of-Work. It also enables anyone to join the validating process at minimal expenses. On top of that, it allows investors to stake their crypto and earn passive income.

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